BAHISHTI ZEWAR

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SALAAT (PRAYER)

THE TIMES OF SALAAT

1. Fajr (morning) Salaat

2. Zuhr (mid-day) Salaat

3. Asr (afternoon) Salaat

4. Maghrib (evening) Salaat

5. Esha (night) Salaat

Rules Related to the Times of Salaat

THE PREREQUISITES OF SALAAT

RULES RELATED TO FACING THE QIBLAH

THE METHOD OF OFFERING FARD SALAAT

2. The Fard Acts of Salaat

3. The Wajib Acts of Salaat

A few rules related to Fard Salaat

Difference in Salaat between Men and Women

Acts that Nullify Salaat

Acts that are Makruh in Salaat

Conditions which Permit the Breaking of Salaat

A few Masa'il Related to Fard and Wajib Salaats

Acts which Invalidate Salaat

The Experiencing of Impurity in Salaat

WITR SALAAT

QADA SALAAT

SUNNAH AND NAFL SALAAT

SAJDAH-E-SAHW

SAJDAH-E-TILAAWAT

SALAAT OF THE SICK

SALAAT ON A JOURNEY

SALAATUL KUSOOF AND KHUSOOF

SALAATUL ISTISQAA'

SALAATUT TARAWEEH

SALAATUL KHAUF

SALAATUL ISTIKHAARAH

SALAATUT TAUBAH

TAHIYYATUL MUSJID

NAFL SALAAT BEFORE EMBARKING ON A JOURNEY

SALAATUL-QATL

SALAATUT TASBEEH

OFFERING SALAAT INSIDE THE KA'BAH

SALAAT (PRAYER)

In the sight of Allah Ta'ala, salaat has a very great distinction. No other act of ibaadah is dearer to Allah than salaat . Allah Ta'ala has made five times salaat compulsory on His servants. There is a great reward in offering salaat and a great sin in omitting it.

It is mentioned in a Hadith that the one who performs his wudu properly and offers his salaat with full concentration; then on the day of resurrection Allah Ta'ala will forgive all his minor sins and grant him paradise. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is reported to have said: " Salaat is a pillar of Deen - the one who has offered his salaat in a proper manner has upheld Deen , and the one who has demolished this pillar (i.e. did not offer his salaat ), has in fact destroyed the Deen ." Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam has also said: "The first thing to be reckoned on the day of resurrection will be salaat . The hands, feet, and face of those who used to offer their salaat regularly will shine like the sun on the day of resurrection. As for those who did not offer their salaat , they will be deprived of this blessing." Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam has further stated: "On the day of resurrection, those who used to offer their salaat will rise with the prophets, martyrs, and saints. Those who used to omit their salaat will rise with these notorious disbelievers: Pharaoh, Haamaan, and Qaarun."

It is therefore essential to offer salaat . By not offering salaat , great damage is caused in both this world and in the hereafter. What can be more worse than the person who does not offer his salaat to be raised with the disbelievers. The one who does not offer his salaat has been regarded as equal to a disbeliever. How serious it is not to offer salaat !

However, salaat is not wajib on the following persons: a lunatic, a young boy and a young girl who have not reached the age of puberty as yet. As for the rest of the Muslims, it is fard on them. However, the parents have been commanded that when their children reach the age of seven, they should be made to offer their salaat . And when they reach the age of ten, they should be punished and compelled to offer their salaat .

Under no condition is it permissible to discard salaat . As far as possible, salaat should most certainly be offered. However, if a person completely forgot to offer his salaat and only remembered after the time of that salaat had passed or slept away in such a way that his eyes did not open and he missed his salaat ; then in such instances there will not be any sin. However, when the person remembers or wakes up from his sleep, it will be fard on him to immediately make his wudu and offer his missed salaat . But if it is a makruh time of salaat , he should wait for a little while so that the makruh time passes. Similarly, there is no sin on those salaats that were missed on account of unconsciousness. However, after regaining consciousness, one should immediately offer those salaats that one missed.

THE TIMES OF SALAAT

1. Fajr (morning) Salaat

In the last part of the night, at the approach of dawn, some whiteness can be noticed on the length of the horizon towards the east, i.e. from the direction in which the sun rises. After a little while, whiteness can be noticed on the breadth of the horizon. This whiteness begins to spread very rapidly. After a little while, it becomes completely bright. From the time that this broad whiteness becomes visible, the time of fajr salaat commences and remains until the rising of the sun. The moment a small portion of the sun appears, the time of fajr salaat ends. However, it is preferable to read it in its early time when it is still dark.

2. Zuhr (mid-day) Salaat

On the declining or descending of the zenith, the time of zuhr salaat commences. An indication that the zenith is declining is that the shadow of long objects begins to decrease from the west towards the north. When it comes exactly to the north and begins to turn towards the east, then one should know that noon has declined. By standing towards the east, the direction on ones left hand is the north. Another easier method of deduction is that as the sun rises, the shadow of everything begins to decrease. Once this decreasing stops, exactly at this time is mid-day or noon. Thereafter, once the shadow begins to increase, it should be understood that noon has declined and from this time, the time of zuhr salaat has commenced. Excluding the extent to which the shadow was at exactly mid-day, till the shadow of everything remains twice its size, the time of zuhr will remain. For example, the shadow of a stick which is one arm in length, was equal to four fingers at mid-day. So as long as its shadow does not spread to two arm-lengths and four fingers, zuhr time will remain. Once it reaches two arm-lengths and four fingers, asr time will commence.

3. Asr (afternoon) Salaat

Based on the previous example, once the shadow reaches two arm-lengths and four fingers, asr time will commence. Asr time will remain until sunset. However, it is makruh to offer asr salaat when the colour of the sun changes and the sun's rays change to yellow. If due to some reason one gets delayed, salaat in this makruh time should be offered and not allowed to be missed out. In future it should not be delayed. Apart from this asr salaat , it is not permissible to offer any other salaat in this time. No missed salaats nor any nafl salaat can be offered.

4. Maghrib (evening) Salaat

Once the sun sets, maghrib time commences. Maghrib time remains as long as the redness on the western horizon remains. However, maghrib salaat should not be delayed to the extent that many stars begin to appear in the sky. To delay it till such a time is makruh .

5. Esha (night) Salaat

Once the redness on the western horizon disappears, esha time commences and remains until dawn. However, after mid-night, esha salaat becomes makruh and the reward is reduced. Therefore, esha salaat should not be delayed till such a time. It is preferable that esha salaat be offered before one third of the night passes.

Rules Related to the Times of Salaat

1. In summer, one should not hasten towards reading zuhr salaat . It is mustahab to offer zuhr salaat after the intense heat rays elapse. In winter, it is preferable to offer zuhr salaat at the beginning of zuhr time.

2. Asr salaat should be delayed till such a time that if after the entry of asr time one wishes to offer any nafl salaat , he can do so, because it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaat after having offered asr salaat irrespective of whether it is in summer or in winter. However, one should not delay to such an extent that the sun turns yellow and its rays change in colour. It is mustahab to hasten towards offering maghrib salaat and to offer it immediately after sunset.

3. The person who is in the habit of waking up for tahajjud salaat in the latter part of the night and has full confidence of definitely waking up; then it is better for him to offer his witr salaat after having offered his tahajjud salaat . But if he is not confident of waking up and fears that he will remain asleep; then he should offer his witr salaat after his esha salaat before going to sleep.

4. It is preferable to delay the fajr, zuhr and maghrib salaats on a cloudy day, while it is mustahab to offer asr salaat a bit early.

5. No salaat is valid at the times of sunrise, mid-day and sunset. However, if asr salaat has not been offered as yet, then it could be offered even at the time of sunset. In these three times, even sajdah-e-tilaawat is makruh and not permissible.

6. It is makruh to offer any nafl salaat after offering fajr salaat until sunrise. However, the offering of any qada salaat and sajdah-e-tilaawat before the sun rises is permissible. But once the sun rises, then as long as some light does not appear, even qada salaat will not be permissible. Similarly, it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaat after the asr salaat . However, qada salaat and sajdah-e-tilaawat is permissible. But once the rays of the sun become weak or faint, then even this is not permissible.

7. At fajr time, a person only offered his fard salaat out of fear that the sun will rise very soon. So as long as the sun does not rise considerably and does not get quite bright, the sunnah salaat should not be offered. Once some light appears, sunnah salaat and any other salaat may be offered.

8. Once dawn breaks and fajr time enters, then apart from the two rakaats sunnah and two rakaats fard of fajr salaat , it is makruh to offer any other nafl salaat . However, it is permissible to offer any qada salaat and to make sajdah-e-tilaawat .

9. If the sun rises while one is offering one’s fajr salaat then this salaat will not be valid. When the sun becomes a bit bright, one should make qada . But if the sun sets while one is offering asr salaat , then this salaat will be valid and there will be no need to make qada of it.

10. It is makruh to sleep before offering esha salaat . One should offer ones salaat and then sleep. However, if due to some sickness or travelling, one is very tired and tells someone to wake him up at the time of salaat and that person promises to wake him up; then in this case it will be permissible to sleep.

11. It is mustahab for men to offer fajr salaat at a time when the light spreads considerably and there is so much of time left that in the salaat itself about forty to fifty verses could be read properly; and after offering the salaat , if for some reason one has to repeat the salaat , then in the same way he could read forty to fifty verses again. It is mustahab for women to offer fajr salaat throughout the year when it is dark. And it is mustahab for men and women who are performing hajj to offer fajr salaat when it is dark when they are in Muzdalifah .

12. The time for jumu'ah salaat is the same as the time for zuhr salaat . The only difference is that it is mustahab to delay zuhr salaat in summer irrespective of whether it is hot or not. And it is mustahab to offer zuhr salaat early in winter, while it is sunnah to offer jumu'ah salaat early throughout the year. This is the opinion of all the ulama .

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