A Brief Guide
to the Rites of
Hajj and Umrah

By Shaikh Abu Haatim Usaamah al-Qoosee

Translated into English by:
Muhammad Yaseen Vigna
(Former student of Madeenah University)

Cover Design by:
Lougain Tolak

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INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK

All praise is due to Allaah and may His peace and blessings be on His final Messenger, his family and those who follow him in goodness until the Day of Judgement. To Proceed:

This book is transcribed translation of a lecture Shaikh Usaamah Al-Qoosee gave while in New York, USA. The Shaikh gave this lecture in Masjid Ahlul-Qur’aan wa Sunnah in February of 2000 before Hajj time. The lecture was given in Arabic and then transcribed and translated by brother, Muhammd Yaseen afterward.

The talk was very beneficial as the Shaikh mentioned the rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah in a simple and understandable form, making it apply to the audience he was directing his talk to – those in the west, particularly those in the United States.

Shaikh Usaamah does not go into detail in this discussion and limits his words to just the main points, briefly mentioning the evidences from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. By doing this, he gives a simple yet informational guide on how to perform the Hajj and ‘Umrah. This is beneficial for those who will be perfoming Hajj soon and do not have time to research the issue in depth or for those who just want a quick and brief guide on what to do during Hajj or ‘Umrah.

The reader will be able to easily follow the rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah, step and by step, as he goes along this treatise. And information is given as to what should be said during each point, as well as what should be done according to the Qur’aan and Sunnah.

We ask Allaah to reward the Shaikh for his beneficial talk and that He place it on his Balance of good deeds on the Day of Judgement. And lastly, we ask that Allaah make this treatise a guide for those who wish to perform Hajj, and that it cause them to perform it correctly and properly, such that their Hajj will be accepted.

Written by isma’eel alarcon For Al-Manhaj.Com On February 9, 2002

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. The Obligation of Hajj..………………………………………….

6

2. The Mawaaqeet.………………………………………………….

7

3. Assuming the State of Ihraam…………………..……………….. 7

4. The Rites of ‘Umrah…..……………………………………….. 8

A. Ihraam.……………………………………………………… 9

B. The Niyyah………………………………………..………… 9

C. The Talbiyyah……………………………………………….. 11

D. The Tawaaf…………………………………………….……. 12

E. The Sa’ee……………………………………………………. 13

F. Tahallul……………………………………………………... 15

5. The Rites of Hajj………………………………………………… 16

A. The Stay at Minaa…………………………………………… 17

B. The Stay at ‘Arafah………………………………………….. 18

C. The Stay at Muzdalifah……………………………………… 19

6. The Prescribed Rites of the 10 th of Dhul-Hijjah..…………...…… 19

A. The Ramee (Stoning)………………………………………... 20

B. The Sacrifice…………………………………..…………….. 20

C. Shaving the Head……………………………………..……... 21

D. Tawaaf around the Ka’bah………………………………...… 21

7. The Days of ‘Eid..…………...…………………………………... 22

8. Special Cases: Women and Menstruation during Hajj…...……… 24

9. The Preferability of Hajj At-Tamattu’………..…………...……... 25

THE OBLIGATION OF HAJJ

Hajj is obligatory on every Muslim only once during his or her lifetime, provided that he or she is able to perform it. The order comes from Allaah in the ayah:

“Hajj (Pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka'bah) is an obligation that humanity owes to Allaah, for those who can find a way (i.e. for those who can find the means to do it). And whoever disbelieves (i.e. denies the Hajj), then Allaah is beyond any need of all that exists (from His creation).” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan: 197]

And His order in the ayah:

“The Hajj is in the well-known (lunar) months. So whoever intends to perform Hajj in these months, then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor argue unjustly during the Hajj.” [Surah Al-Baqarah: 197]

And in His order:

"Complete (perform properly) the Hajj and ‘Umrah for Allaah..." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 196]

From these previous ayaat we can conclude that Hajj is obligatory on every Muslim who has the (physical, financial, and circumstantial) ability to reach the sacred precincts of the Ka'bah at Makkah.

As for those who have the ability to do so but do not perform Hajj, then they are committing a major sin from the major sins of Islaam and, moreoever it is one of the things that indicate Kufr (Disbelief).

Therefore, Hajj is obligatory once in a person's lifetime – for those who have the ability to do it. Whoever performs it more than once, then these extra Hajj are considered voluntary (naafilah).

THE MAWAAQEET

Hajj in regards to the Muslims living in this country (i.e. United States) commences when the Muslim travels to Makkah and makes the initial intention of ‘Umrah. He assumes his sacred state of Ihraam at the appointed places (Mawaaqeet), designated for asuming Ihraam when passing through those designated places.

According to the statement of the Prophet ( sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ): “The Mawaaqeet are the places designated for those wishing to assume Ihraam when they pass these places, not including the people (who already reside there).”

These are places specifically designated in order to assume Ihraam, known as Mawaaqeet (sing: Meeqaat). It is not permissible for anyone who wishes to perform Hajj or ‘Umrah to pass beyond these places towards Makkah without assuming the sacred state of Ihraam.

These specified places, known as the Mawaaqeet, extend from the direction of Makkah in four different directions. Whoever passes any one of these places going towards Makkah must assume Ihraam before proceeding, except for the residents of that place (and those living nearer to Makkah).

As for you (here in the United States), the majority of you travel by plane through the direction of Egypt. Therefore, you will take the same Meeqaat as the people of Egypt, which is also the same Meeqaat that is designated for the people of Shaam. This Meeqaat is known as "Raabig" and it is located about a ½ hour by air before reaching Jeddah. It is now a deserted, and abandoned town, known as al-Juhfah, or “The Dry Place", because of the frequent rain torrents (sayl) that wash over it on their way to the sea, leaving it barren.

ASSUMING THE STATE OF IHRAAM

It is not necessary to assume the state of Ihraam from America before leaving; since it is a long journey. So whoever travels from here in order to perform the Hajj should dress in his normal attire and carry his Ihraam clothing in his carry-on hand luggage, changing into it before the plane is approximately a ½ hour due to land at Jeddah.

At this time, while assuming the Ihraam, your intention should be for ’Umrah. Why should your intention be for ‘Umrah and not for Hajj? Well, the answer lies in the hadeeth of the Messenger of Allaah ( sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ) where he and his Companions gathered and collected animals designated for sacrifice along the way from Madeenah to Makkah, enclosing even more of them when approaching Makkah. All of them having the intention of only Hajj, they performed the Tawaaf (circumambulation) around the House (Ka'bah) and the Sa’ee between as-Safaa and al-Marwah, after which the Prophet ( sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ) said clearly and decisively:

“Whoever among you does not possess a hadee (a sacrificial animal), then let him make this (an ‘Umrah). He is to come out of the sacred state of Ihraam now and has fulfilled his duties and rites after completing it.”

Then they were ordered to assume the Ihraam a second time, this time for Hajj on the 8 th of Dhul-Hijjah known as Yawm at-Tarwiyyah (The Day of Watering, i.e. for the people and the animals).

So, we can divide those Hujaaj (pilgrims performing Hajj) into two groups:

  1. Those who possess and lead their sacrificial animals with them,
  2. Those who do not have their sacrificial animals with them.

As for those who possess their sacrificial animals with them, then it is not possible for them to come out of their sacred state of Ihraam, due to the statement of Allaah:

"And do not shave your heads until the hadee reaches the place of sacrifice." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 196]

This means that it is impermissible to come out of Ihraam for whoever still has his hadee (sacrificial animal) in his possession until he reaches the place of slaughtering during Hajj.

So whoever brings his sacrificial animal (hadee) with him before the Meeqaat, must remain in Ihraam for the duration of both the ‘Umrah and the Hajj, until its completion. This is the combination of Hajj and ‘Umrah together in one ordered arrangement of rites, known as Hajj At-Qiraan .

As for those who do not possess their sacrificial animals before the Meeqaat, including those who made their intention for Hajj only (at the Meeqaat), they must come out of their Ihraam after performing the Tawaaf and Sa'ee, thereby completing their ‘Umrah.

So ‘Umrah is the beginning of the order of rites for Hajj. Since the majority of people do not bring their sacrificial animals with them nowadays, we will not concern ourselves with that type of Hajj (i.e. Hajj al-Qiraan )

THE RITES OF ‘UMRAH

The Pillars (arkaan) of ‘Umrah are four:

  1. Ihraam : which is assumed at the Meeqaat,
  2. Tawaaf: around the House, which consists of seven circuits,
  3. Sa'ee: between the hills of as-Safaa and al-Marwah, which consists of seven circuits,
  4. Tahallul: which means coming out of the sacred state of Ihraam, making lawful what which was previously prohibited during ihraam

IHRAAM:

Ihraam is assumed at the specified Meeqaat, or on the plane before passing the Meeqaat, as we have discussed before.

The men are to change into their clothing of Ihraam while the women only need to make their intention at that time in the clothing they are already wearing. There is no specific clothing designated for women, except that they are prohibited from wearing the Niqaab (face-veil) 1 and gloves. Yes, it is obligatory and correct that women should cover their faces and hands (generally), but (at this time) it is forbidden for them to do so using the Niqaab and gloves. Instead, they should cover their hands with the lower part of their khimaar (head covering), while using the upper part of their jilbaab (outer garment) or a separate piece of fabric to cover their faces.

This is the most preferred opinion according to the People of Knowledge, whereby the covering of the face and hands while in Ihraam is not forbidden, but rather what is prohibited is the wearing of these two specific articles of woman's clothing, designed to cover the face (niqaab) and the hands (gloves).

Therefore, women must cover their faces and hands with the clothing they are wearing, but are prohibited to use the Niqaab and gloves for that purpose.

As for men, they must assume their Ihraam at the Meeqaat by wearing two pieces of fabric called the Izaar and the Ridaa' . The Ridaa' covers the top half of the body, while the Izaar covers the lower half. No other clothing is allowed to be worn in addition to these – no underwear, no pants, no shirt, no turban, no hat, etc. are to be worn.

As for women, their Ihraam is limited to only their faces and hands. They are not allowed to wear the face-veil or gloves, but must assume Ihraam in their regular clothing. Unlike men, they do not have special clothing to wear.

THE NIYYAH:

The intention (niyyah ) is made at the Meeqaat to begin the state of Ihraam. The Prophet ( sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ) said: “Actions are only by intention.”

Translator’s Note: The Niqaab is a piece of clothing specifically designed for the purpose of covering the face and/or head and is in direct contact with the surface of the skin.

The intention that enters one into the state of Ihraam must be made in the heart, while the statement made afterwards is:

“Labayk Allaahumma Labayk.”

This statement begins the rites of ‘Umrah and Hajj just as the pronouncement of Takbeer (saying Allaahu Akbar) begins the prayer. So just as a person enters into prayer with the opening Takbeer, likewise, the Muhrim enters into the sacred rites of Hajj and ‘Umrah by saying:

“Labayk Allaahumma bi-‘Umrah” or

“Labayk Allaahumma bi-Hajj.”

When assuming Ihraam at the Meeqaat, it is sufficient to mention just the ‘Umrah in the opening Talbiyyah (i.e., say: Labayk Allaahumma bi-‘Umrah ), since the person will be a Mutamatta'ee, i.e. he will be performing Hajj at-Tamattu’ (joining ‘Umrah with Hajj). Allaah says:

"And whoever performs the ‘Umrah in the months of Hajj before (performing) the Hajj (i.e. Hajj at-Tamattu' and al-Qiraan), he must sacrifice a hadee such as he can afford without difficulty..." [Surah Al-Baqarah: 196]

So whoever enters into Ihraam for ‘Umrah, he must complete his ‘Umrah and then come out of Ihraam. Then he must wait in Makkah until the 8 th of Dhul-Hijjah, then go into Ihraam another time, this time for Hajj, while in Makkah.

This division between the Hajj and the ‘Umrah is known as a t-Tamattu' , and one who performs this type of Hajj is known as a Mutamatta'ee . A Mutamatta'ee is required to sacrifice an animal (hadee) in the sacred precincts during Hajj on the 10 th of Dhul Hijjah.

So the first pillar of ‘Umrah is the Ihraam. The intention is made in the heart, while the tongue recites the opening Talbiyyah, which is: “Labbayk Allaahumma bi-‘Umrah” , or “Labbayka ‘Umrah.”

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